TROLLEY ENTERPRISES INC. Download PDF Report
Trolley Enterprises submitted a model Hybrid-Electric Trolley, diesel-powered 28 seat/31-foot trolley, for a 10 yr/350,000 mile STURAA test. The trolley is manufactured using a Freightliner MB 55 chassis. The integration of the hybrid-electric drive system was completed by SK, International. The odometer reading at the time of delivery was 259.0 miles. Testing started on February 27, 2003 and was completed on February 16, 2004. The Check-In section of the report provides a description of the bus and specifies its major components.
The primary part of the test program is the Structural Durability Test, which also provides the information for the Maintainability and Reliability results. The Structural Durability Test was started on March 13, 2003 and was completed on February 6, 2004.
The interior of the trolley is configured with seating for 28 passengers including the driver. Free floor space will accommodate 20 standing passengers resulting in a potential load of 48 persons. At 150 lbs per person, this load results in a measured gross vehicle weight of 29,250 lbs. In order to avoid exceeding the gross axle weight rating (8,000 lbs) of the front axle and (17,200 lbs) of the rear axle, ballast for all 20 standing passengers and 7 seated passengers was eliminated. This reduction from full capacity resulted in an adjusted measured gross vehicle weight of 25,350 lbs and was used for all dynamic testing. The middle seated load weight segment was performed with ballast placed in 21 of the 28 seats. Ballast for 7 of the 28 passenger positions was eliminated to avoid exceeding the front and rear gross axle weight ratings. The final curb weight segment was performed at 22,350 lbs. Durability driving resulted in unscheduled maintenance and failures that involved a variety of subsystems. A description of failures, and a complete and detailed listing of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance is provided in the Maintainability section of this report.
Accessibility, in general, was adequate, components covered in Section 1.3 (Repair and/or Replacement of Selected Subsystems) along with all other components encountered during testing, were found to be readily accessible and no restrictions were noted.
The Reliability section compiles failures that occurred during Structural Durability Testing. Breakdowns are classified according to subsystems. The data in this section are arranged so that those subsystems with more frequent problems are apparent. Also the problems also are listed by class as defined in Section 2. The test bus encountered no Class 1 failures. Of the 73 reported failures, 22 were Class 2, all of which occurred in the drive system, 21 were Class 3 and the remaining 30 were Class 4.
The Safety Test, (a double-lane change, obstacle avoidance test) was safely performed in both right-hand and left-hand directions up to a maximum speed of 44 mph. (Note: the maximum test speed of 45 mph could not be obtained). The performance of the bus is illustrated by a speed vs. time plot. Acceleration and gradeability test data are provided in Section 4, Performance. The top test speed of 50 mph could not be obtained. The top speed of 44 mph was limited by the performance of the bus. The average time to obtain 44 mph was 45.43 seconds.
The Shakedown Test produced a maximum final loaded deflection of 0.060 inches with a permanent set ranging between 0.000 to 0.004 inches under a distributed static load of 18,000 lbs. The Distortion Test was completed with all subsystems, doors and escape mechanisms operating properly. No water leakage observed throughout the test. All subsystems operated properly.
The Static Towing Test was performed using a target load (towing force) of 26,820 lbs. The front up, down and right pulls were completed to the full test load with no damage or deformation observed. The right front frame area failed during the 20º left pull terminating further testing. Rear towing is not recommended, therefore, a rear test was not performed. The Dynamic Towing Test was performed by use of a flat bed trailer. The towing interface was accomplished (using manufacturer’s recommended procedures) by loading the test vehicle on a flat bed trailer and securing to the trailer. The Trolley was flat-bedded without incident and no damage resulted from the test. The manufacturer does not recommend towing the bus from the rear, therefore, a rear test was not performed. The Jacking and Hoisting Tests were also performed without incident. The bus was found to be stable on the jack stands, and the minimum jacking clearance observed with a tire deflated was 6.5 inches.
A Fuel Economy Test was run on simulated central business district, arterial, and commuter courses. The results were 5.27 mpg, 10.61 mpg, and 14.73 mpg respectively; with an overall average of 7.83 mpg.
A series of Interior and Exterior Noise Tests was performed. These data are listed in Section 7.1 and 7.2 respectively.